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 بروفيسور أحمد محمد الحسن

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عدد المساهمات : 23
تاريخ التسجيل : 04/04/2010
الموقع : الفيحاء مربع 8

مُساهمةموضوع: بروفيسور أحمد محمد الحسن   الأحد أبريل 18, 2010 4:31 am

  1. أبو العلم في السودان بلا منازع
    الوظيفة /معهد الأمراض المستوطنة جامعة الخرطوم
    الميلاد :10/4/1930
    إليكم سيرته الذاتية:

    CURRICULUM VITAE
    Name: Ahmed Mohamed EL Hassan.
    Address: Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Sudan. P.O. Box 102,
    Khartoum, Sudan.
    Nationality: Sudanese
    Date of birth: 10 April 1930.
    Sex: Male
    Qualifications:
    Date Institution Qualification obtained
    2006 Ahfad University for Women Hon Dsc
    1974 Royal Collage of Physicians, London F.R.C.P.
    1964 University of Edinburgh, Ph.D.
    1960 University of London. D.C.P.
    1964 Royal College of Pathologists, London F.R.C. Path.
    1955 University of Khartoum, Sudan. D.K.S.M.
    Awards and Honours:
    Date Awarding body Name of award
    1955 Kitchener Memorial Fund Kitchener Memorial Prize
    1955 University of Khartoum Distinction and prizes in Medicine and Surgery
    1977 Government of Sudan Gold Medal for Research and Science
    1986 World Health Organization Shousha Prize
    1979 Government of Sudan El Neelain Order (First Class)
    1995 Government of Sudan Order of Merit (First Class)
    1996 Donald Mackay Medal Royal Soc of Tropical Medicine and hygiene UK
    Positions held:
    Date Position
    1955-1957 Housemanship, Ministry of Health, Sudan
    1957-1958 Medical Officer, Ministry of Health, Sudan
    1958-1960 Research Assistant, Pathology Department, and faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum
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    1960-1961 Honorary Registrar, Pathology Department, Postgraduate Medical School, London
    1961-1962 D.C.P. Course, London
    1962-1963 Lecturer in Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum
    1963-1965 Ph.D Student, Pathology Department, University of Edinburgh
    1965-1966 Senior Lecturer and Head, Department of Pathology, University of Khartoum
    1966-1969 Professor of Pathology, University of Khartoum
    1969-1971 Dean, Faculty of Medicine and Deputy Vice Chancellor, University of Khartoum
    1971-1972 Minister of Higher Education and Research, Sudan
    1972-1977 Chairman Medical Research Council, National Council for Research, Sudan
    1977-1979 Chairman & Professor, Pathology Department. College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, King Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
    1979-1980 Professor of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Chairman, Medical Research Council, Khartoum, Director of Tropical Diseases, Institute, Khartoum
    1980-1987 Professor of Pathology, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, King Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia and Director of Research, Translations and Publications, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, King Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
    1988-1991 Professor of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum
    1993-2000 Director, Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum.
    Professor of Pathology, Ahfad School of Medicine, Ahfad University for Women, Omdurman, Sudan.
    Emeritus Professor of Pathology, University of Khartoum.
    2005 to date President Sudanese National Academy of Sciences (SNAS)
    2005 to date President Sudanese Cancer Society
    Contribution to medical education, health manpower development and research administration:
    Establishment of the following institutions and activities:-
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    - Institute of Medical Laboratory Technology, University of Khartoum 1965. It is now elevated to College of Medical Laboratory Technology, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research.
    - Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Sudan -1970.
    - Institute of Tropical Medicine, National Council for Research, Sudan.
    - Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Medical Sciences, King Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.
    - Directorate of Research, Publications and Translations, Faculty of Medicine and Medical Sciences, King Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.
    - College of Medical Laboratory Technology, Ahlia University, Omdurman, Sudan.
    - Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Ahfad University College for Women, Omdurman, Sudan.
    - Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum.
    - The Sudanese Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
    - Supervision or co-supervision of M Sc, PhD or M.D. thesis in the Universities of Khartoum, Amsterdam and Copenhagen.
    Membership of Scientific Bodies and Societies:
    - Scientific Technical Advisory Committee (STAC )TDR 1979-1982 and 1983-1986
    - Advisory Committee on Health Research EMRO/WHO.
    - Sudan Society for Pathology.
    - International Academy of Pathology (Middle East).
    - New York Academy for Sciences.
    - Sudanese Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
    Current Research:
    1. Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic studies on leishmaniasis in the Sudan.
    2. Evaluation of molecular biological and serological methods in the diagnosis of
    4
    leishmaniasis under field conditions.
    3. Immunopathology of leishmaniasis.
    4. Vaccines aginst leishmaniasis.
    5. Epidemiology and immunopathology of mycetoma in the Sudan.
    6. Epidemiology of leprosy in the southern part of Gedaref State, Sudan.
    7. Epidemiology of malaria in two villages on the Rahad River, Gedarif State, Sudan.
    8. Cancer and infectious agents
    9. Research grants: Grants received from TDR, EC, Wellcome Trust, DANIDA and most recently from The Academy of Sciences for the Third World (TWAS) to work on nasopharyngeal cancer
    10. Published Papers before 1990 (El Hassan et. al):
    1 Pulmonary Cytomegalic inclusion body disease in a diabetic. J. Clin. Path., 15, 17, 1962.
    2 Salivary gland tumours in the Sudan. Sud. Med. J., 1, 3,1962.
    3 Multicentric sarcoma of the jaw. Sud. Med. J., 1, 168, 1962.
    4 Cancer of the female genital tract among the Sudanese. J. Obst. Gynae., 70, 495, 1963.
    5 Cancer in the Sudan. Sud. Med. J., 2, 29, 1963.
    6 Inhibition and enhancement of the Landschuts ascites tumour. Proceedings of International Congress of Chemotherapy, Stuttgart, Germany, 1963.
    7 Inhibition and enhancement of a mouse ascites tumour after treatment with living lymphoid cells. Lancet, 11, 496, 1963.
    8 Specific Inhibition of the Landschuts tumour by an isogenic cellular system. Lancet, 1, 913, 1964.
    9 The Pathology of the Landschuts ascites tumour. Brit. J. Cancer, 28, 551, 1964.
    10 Cancer of the bladder in the Sudanese and its relationship to Bilharziasis. Al-Hakeem, 20, 74, 1964.
    11 Changes in the lymphoreticular tissues of mice bearing the Landschuts tumour. Brit. J. Cancer, 19, 343, 1965.
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    12 Survival of isogenic splenic grafts. J. Path. Bact., 90, 664, 1965.
    13 Pathological aspects of Schistosomiasis in Sudan. Al-Hakeem, 20, 58, 1966.
    14 Aortic onchocerciasis due to onchocerca armillatta in Sudan cattle. Sud. Med. J., 4, 147, 1966.
    15 Inhibition and enhancement of the Landschutz ascites tumour with lymphoid cells. J. Path. Bact., 91, 11-31, 1966.
    16 A comparative study of the DNA complement of malignant tumours. Sud. Med. J., 4, 1, 1966.
    17 Malignant disease in Sudanese children. Sud. Med. J., 5, 2, 68, 1967.
    18 Unusual forms of cardiomyopathy. Sud. Med. J., 5, 2, 68, 1967.
    19 Oral and oropharyngeal tumours in the Sudan. Sud. Med. J., 5, 8-16, 1967.
    20 Contribution to the pathological aspects of ainhum. Sud Med. J., 5, 82-87, 1967.
    21 Bilharziasis in the Sudan. Cs. Patal., Vol. 3, No. IV, 244- 252, 1967.
    22 Kaposi's sarcoma in the Sudan. Sud. Med. J., 5 (4), 213,1967.
    23 Malignant disease of the upper respiratory tract. Proceeding of the Conference of Cancer in East Africa, Nairobi, 1968.
    24 Aspects of malignant disease in the Sudan. Proceedings of the Conference on Cancer in East Africa, Nairobi, 1968.
    25 The hereditary blood factors of the Beja of the Sudan. Man., 3, 272, 1968.
    26 Non-healing midline granuloma. Sud. Med. J., Vol. 6, 1968.
    27 Autopsy findings in Khartoum. Sud. Med. J., Vol. 6, 1968.
    28 Sudan mucosal leishmaniasis. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. & Hyg., 63, 123-128, 1969.
    29 Mucosal leishmaniasis in the Sudan. Ann. Trop. Med. & Parasitol., 63, 123-128, 1969.
    30 Cervical lymphadenopathy caused by aspergillus terreus. Brit. Med. J., 1, 689-690, 1969.
    31 Primary Aspergilloma of Paranasal sinuses in the Sudan. Brit. J. Surg., 56, 132, 1969.
    32 White bile in Sudanese patients with cholelithiasis. Ain. Shams. Med. J., Vol. 20, No. 2, 1969.
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    33 Phycomycosis. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. & Hyg., 64, 134-137, 1970.
    34 Tumoral calcinosis. Sud. Med. J., 9, 133, 1971.
    35 Lymph node involvement in mycetoma. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. & Hyg., 165, 1972.
    36 Cardiovascular disease in Khartoum, postmortem and clinical evidence. Trop. Geogr. Med., 24, 118, 1972.
    37 Pulmonary aspergillosis caused by aspergillus flavus. Thorax, 27, 33-37, 1972.
    38 Hycanthone trial in the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni infection in the Sudan. J. Trop. Med. & Hyg., 75, 165-8, 1972.
    39 Further observations on the primary paranasal aspergillus granuloma in the Sudan. Am. J. Trop. Med. & Hyg., 75, 165-8,1972.
    40 Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Sudan. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. & Hyg., 67, 549-559, 1973.
    41 Studies in the anaemia of kowashorkor and marasmus in the Sudan. J Trop Pediatr Environ Health1973;19:91-7.
    42 Arterial changes in Kalazar. Act. Morph. Acad. Sci., Hung., 21, Suppl., 14, 32, 1973.
    43 Morphological observations on visceral leishmaniasis in the Sudan. Trop. Geogr. Med., 26, 198-201, 1974.
    44 Superficial cancer in the Sudan. Brit. J. Cancer, 30, 355, 1974.
    45 Adenoacanthoma in endometriosis of the broad ligament. Sudan Med. J., 12, 22-25, 1974.
    46 Proceedings: Some blood characteristics in the major tribes of the Sudan. West Afr J Pharmacol Drug Res1974;2:110
    47 Preliminary report on the pathology of the nephrotic syndrome in Sudanese patients. West Afr. J. Pharmacol. Drug Res., 2, 111, 1974.
    48 Pattern of cancer of the bladder in the Sudan and its relationship to Schistosomiasis. J. Trop. Med. & Hyg., 78, 219, 1975.
    49 Sudan Mucosal Leishmaniasis. Trans. Roy. Trop. Med. & Hyg., 69, 1975.
    50 Some aspects of the surgical pathology of schistosomiasis in the Sudan. East Afr. Med. J., 52, 183-195, 1975.
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    51 Leiomyoma in the cervix and hyperplastic ectopic mammary tissue in a goat. Aust. Vet. J., 51, 362, 1975 (letter).
    52 Pattern of bladder cancer in the Sudan and its relation to Schistosomiasis: a study of 255 vesical carcinomas. J Trop Med hyg1975;78:219-23.
    53 Burkitts lymphoma in the Sudan. Afr. J. Med. Sci., 5, 30-34, 1976.
    54 Tumoral lipocalcinosis: a clinicopathological study of 20 cases. J pathol1976;19:113-8
    55 Morphology of the spleen and lymph nodes in fatal visceral leishmaniasis. Immunology, 33, 605-610, 1977.
    56 Immunological status of mycetoma patients. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales1977;70:48-54.
    57 Northward spread of visceral leishmaniasis in the Sudan. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. & Hyg., 70, 266 (letter), 1979.
    58 The pathology of Schistosomiasis in Sudan. Trop. Geogr. Med., 29, 56-64, 1977.
    59 The nephrotic syndrome in the Sudan with special reference to schistosomal nephropathy. Ann. Trop. Med. & Parasitol., 72, 357, 1978.
    60 Mycetoma in goats. Sabourodia, 16, 217, 1978.
    61 Studies of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Sudan. Ann. Trop. Med. & Parasitol., 72, 349-352.
    62 Electron microscope investigation on leishmaniasis in the Sudan (I) Morphometric studies on leishmania parasites in various forms of human leishmaniasis. Ann. of Trop. Med. & Parasi., 44, 421-426, 1980.
    63 Louse-borne relapsing fever in the Sudan. A historical review and clinicopathological study. Trop. Geogr. Med., 32,106, 1980.
    64 Pattern of the nephrotic syndrome in the Sudan. Ann. Med. Parasitol., 74, 37-44, 1980.
    65 Fibrous epulis in a one-humped camel. Zbl. Vet. A., 27, 675- 677, 1980.
    66 Electron microscopic investigations on leishmaniasis in the Sudan: (II). Ultrastructural morphology of macrophage-parasite interaction in human and hamster macrophages in vivo. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 75, 607-613, 1981.
    67 Spontaneous release of macrophages from lysogenic bovine strains. Tubercle, 6, 263-9, 1981.
    68 Primary intestinal tuberculosis. Ann. Trop. Med. & Parasitol., 76, 317-322, 1982.
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    69 Expanding clinical spectrum of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Saudi Arabia. Proceedings of the 8th Saudi Medical Conference, 1982 (in press).
    70 The pathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Saudi Arabia. Proceedings of the 8th Saudi Medical Conference, 1982 (in press).
    71 Expanding clinical spectrum of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Saudi Arabia. In: Second Annual Progress Report of the National Leishmaniasis Research Project. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Saudi National Centre for Science and Technology, pp. 123-143. ,1983.
    72 Visceral spreading depletion of thymus - dependent regions and amyloidosis in mice and hamsters infected intradermally with leishmania isolated from Sudanese cutaneous leishmaniasis. Br. J. Exp. Path., 64, 605, 1984.
    73 The ultrastructural morphology of human cutaneous leishmaniasis of low parasite load. Acta. Dermato-Venereologica, 64, 501-5, 1984.
    74 Abdominal tuberculosis. Postgraduate Doctor, 7, 718-724, 1984.
    75 The pathology of Aspergillus flavus in uncompromized host. East Afr. Med. J., 61, 837-842, 1984.
    76 Malignant lymphomas at the pathology department, University of Khartoum. East Afr. Med. J., 61, No. 8, 1984
    77 Immunohistochemical demonstration of lysozome and S100 protein antigen-containing cells in chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis. Acta. Path. Microbiol. Immunol. Scand., 99, 331-334, 1985.
    78 A clinicopathological study of intestinal bilharziasis in the Sudan. East Afr. Med. J., 397-402, 1985.
    79 Primary Paranasal Aspergillus granuloma. Postgraduate Doctor, 9, 258-82, 1985.
    80 Vascular changes in human leishmaniasis: A light microscope and immunohistochemical study. Ann. Trop. Med. Parsitol., 80, 183-188, 1986.
    81 Dermal and mucosal leishmaniasis in the Sudan in "Leishmaniasis in Saudi Arabia" published by the Saudi Ministry of Health, 1986 pp.
    82 Ketoconazole in cutaneous leishmaniasis: results of a pilot study. Saudi Med. J., 7, 596-604, 1986.
    83 Immunohistological investigation in chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Saudi Arabia Trop Geogr Med1986;38:380-5
    84 Lymphocyte phenotypes and HLA-DR expression in lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis and their draining lymph nodes. Ann. Saud. Med., 212-220,1987.
    85 Dissemination in cutaneous leishmaniasis: 1. Subcutaneous nodules. Int. J. Dermatol., 1987.
    86 Peripheral nerve involvement in cutaneous leishmaniasis: Int. J. Dermatol., 26, 527-531, 1987.
    87 Chronic obstructive mastitis in the camel: A clinicopathological study. Cornell Vet., 77, 132-150, 1987.
    88 Leishmania infecting man and wild animals in Saudi Arabia, canine cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Eastern Province. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. & Hyg., 81, 925-927, 1987.
    89 The histopathology of naturally occurring cutaneous leishmaniasis in the reservoir host, Psammomys obesus. Bull. Soc. Path. Ex., 80, 615-623, 1987.
    1:
    90 Malignant melanoma in goats: a clinico-pathological study. J Comp Pathol. 1988 Feb;98(2):237-46.
    91 Clinical diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (oriental sore). J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 16, 1183-1189, 1987a.
    92 Dissemination in cutaneous leishmaniasis. 1. Subcutaneous nodules. Int. J. Dermatol., 26, 300-304,1987b.
    93 Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Sud. Med. J, special issue, p.11, 1987.
    94 Glycosylated haemoglobin: An indicator of long-term blood glucose in domestic sheep and goats. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 90a: 229-231, 1988.
    95 A case of African histoplasmosis from the Sudan. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. & Hyg., 82, 503-505, 1988.
    96 Dissemination in cutaneous leishmaniasis. 2. Satellite papules and subcutaneous induration. Int. J. Dermatol., 27, 702-706,1988.
    97 Intersexuality in goats NZ Vet J Erratum NZ J vet J 1989;37:50.
    98 Dissemination in cutaneous leishmaniasis. 3. Lymph node involvement. Int. J. Dermatol., 28, 248-254, 1989a.
    99 Cryosurgery in Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis. Brit. J. Dermatol., 118, 851-854, 1989b.
    100 Peripheral neural involvement in cutaneous leishmaniasis. A pathologic study of human and experimental lesions. Int. J. Dermatol., 28: 243-247, 1989.
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    List of publications since 1990:
    101 El-Hassan, A.M., Ahmed, M.A.M., Abdul Rahim, A.G., Abdul Satir, A., Wasfi, A., Kordofani, A.A.Y., Mustafa, M.D., Wasfi, S., Bella, H. & Karrar, M.O. Visceral leishmaniasis in the Sudan: clinical and hematological features. Ann. Saudi Med., 10, 51-56, 1990a.
    102 El Hassan, A.M., Ghalib, H.W., Zijlstra, E.E., El Toum, I.A., Ali, M.S., Ahmed, H.M.A. Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in the absence of active visceral leishmaniasis. Lancet, 336, 750, 1990.
    103 Zijlstra, E.E., Ali M.S., El Hassan, A.M., El-Toum, I.A., Satti, M., Ghalib, H.W., Sondorp, E. & Winkler, A. Kala-azar in displaced people from southern Sudan: epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic findings. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 85, 365-369, 1991a.
    104 Zijlstra, E.E., Ali M.S., El Hassan, A.M., El-Toum, I.A., Satti, M., Ghalib, H.W. & Kager, P.A. Direct agglutination test for diagnosis and sero-epidemiological survey of kala-azar in the Sudan. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 85, 474-476, 1991b.
    105 El Hassan , A.M., El Sheikh, E.A., El Toum, I.A., Ghalib, H.W., Ali, M.S., Zijlstra, E., & Satti, M.M. Post-kala-azar anterior uveitis: demonstration of Leishmania parasites in the lesion. Trans. Roy. Trop. Med. Hyg., 85, 471-473, 1991.
    106 Ramadan RO, EL Hassan AM. Squamois cell carcinoma in sheep in Saudi Arabia. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop1991;44:23-6
    107 EL Hassan AM, EL Toum IA, EL Asha BM The Marrara syndrome: isolation of Linguata serrata nymphs from a patient and the viscera of goats. Tran R Soc Trop Med Hyg1991;85:309.
    108 El Hassan A.M., Ali, M.S., Zijlstra, E.E., El Toum, I.A., Ghalib, H.W. & Ahmed, H.M.A. Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in the Sudan: peripheral neural involvement. Int. J. Dermatol., 31, 400-403, 1992a.
    109 El Hassan, A.M., Ghalib, H.W., Zijlstra, E.E., El Toum, I.A., Satti, M., Ali, M.S. & Ali, H.M.A. Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in the Sudan: clinical features, pathology and treatment. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 86, 245-248, 1992b.
    110 Zijlstra E.E., Siddig, Ali M., El Hassan, A.M., El Toum, I.A., Satti, M., Ghalib H.W. Clinical aspects of kala-azar in children from the Sudan. A comparison with the disease in adults. J. Trop. Paed., 1992; 38: 17-21.
    111 El Toum, I.A., Zijlstra, E.E., Ali, M.S., Ghalib, H.W., Satti, M.M.H., El Toum B.& El Hassan A.M. Congenital kala-azar and leishmaniasis of the placenta. Am. J. Trop. Med., 46, 57-62, 1992.
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    112 Zijlstra, E.E., Siddig, Ali M., El Hassan, A.M., El Toum, I.A., Satti, M., Ghalib, H.W., Kager, P.A. Comparative parasitological methods and the direct agglutination test in the diagnosis of kala-azar. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 86: 505-507, 1992.
    113 Ghalib, H.W., El Toum, I.A., Kroon, C.C.M.& El Hassan, A.M. Identification of Leishmania from mucosal leishmaniasis in the Sudan by recombinant DNA probes. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 86, 158-160, 1992.
    114 Abbas, K., El Toum, I.A. & El Hassan, A.M. Oral leishmaniasis associated with kala-azar. A case report. Oral Surg., Oral Med. & Oral Path., 73, 583-584, 1992.
    115 El Hassan, A.M., Hashim, F.A., Abdalla, M., Zijlstra, E.E. & Ghalib, H.W. Distinguishing post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis from leprosy: experience in the Sudan. Lepr. Rev., 64, 53-59, 1993.
    116 Zijlstra, E.E., Siddig, Ali M., El Hassan, A.M., Hofland, H.W.C., El Toum, I.A., Satti, M. & Ghalib, H.W. The treatment of kala-azar with sodium stibogluconate in the Sudan: a randomized trial of three dosage regimens. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 87: 307-309, 1993.
    117 Zijlstra, E.E., El-Hassan, A.M. Leishmanin and tuberculin sensitivity in leishmaniasis in the Sudan, with special reference to kala-azar. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 87, 425-427, 1993.
    118 El Hassan, A.M., Hashim, F.A., Ali M.S., Ghalib, H.W. & Zijlstra, E.E. Kala-azar in western Upper Nile in the southern Sudan and its spread to a nomadic tribe from the north. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 87, 395-398, 1993a.
    119 El Hassan, A.M., Zijlstra, E.E., Meredith, S.E.O., Ghalib, H.W. & Ismail, A. Identification of Leishmania donovani using a polymerase chain reaction in patient and animal material obtained from an area of endemic kala-azar in the Sudan. Acta. Trop., 55, 87-90, 1993b.
    120 Meredith, S.E.O., Zijlstra, E.E., Schoone, G.J., Kroon, C.C.M., van Eys, G.J.J.M., Schaeffer, K.U, El Hassan, A.M., Lawyer, P.G. Development of the Polymerase Chain Reaction for the detection and identification of Leishmania parasites, and the application of the PCR for detection of parasites in clinical material. Arch. Inst. Pasteur Tunis, 1993, 70 (3-4), 419-431.
    121 Ghalib, H.W., Piuvezam, M.R., Skeiky, N.W., Siddig, M., Hashim, F.A., El Hassan, A.M., Russo D.M. & Reed, S.G. Interleukin -10 production correlates with pathology in human Leishmania infection. J. Clin. Invest., 92, 324-329, 1993.
    122 Kadaro, A.Y., Ghalib, H.W., Ali, M.S., El Toum, I.A., Ismail, A., Gaafar, A., Kemp, M., Kordofani, A.A.Y., Reed, S.G., El-Hassan, A.M., Kharazmi, A., Hag Ali, M. & Mustafa, M,D. Prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis along the Nile river north of Khartoum (Sudan) in the aftermath of an epidemic in 1985. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. , 48,44-49,
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    1993.
    123 El-Hassan, A.M., Gaafar, A.& Theander, T. Antigen presenting cells in human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L.major. Clin. Exp. Immunol, 99,445-453,1994a.
    124 El-Hassan, A.M., Yagi, H., El Kadaro, A. Y. & Zijlstra, E.E. Leishmaniasis of the nose caused by different species of Leishmania. Trop. Geogr. Med., 46, 33-36, 1994b.
    125 Zijlstra, E. E., El Hassan, A. M., Ismail, A. & Ghalib, H.W. Endemic kala-azar in eastern Sudan: a longitudinal study on the incidence of clinical and subclinical disease and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 51, 826-836,1994.
    126 Gaafar, A., Fadl, A., El Kadaro, A. Y., El-Hassan, M. M., Kemp, M., Ismail, A.I.A., Morgos, S.A. & El-Hassan, A.M. Sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major of different zymodemes in the Sudan and Saudi Arabia: a comparative study. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg, 88, 552-554, 1994.
    127 El Hag, I.A., Hashim, F.A., El-Toum, I.A., Homeida, H., El Khalifa, M. & El-Hassan, A.M. Liver morphology and function in visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). J. Clin. Path, 47, 547-551, 1994.
    128 Hashim, F.A.& El-Hassan, A.M. Tinea versicolor and visceral leishmaniasis. Int. J. Dermatol., 33, 258-259, 1994.
    129 Hashim, F.A., Ali, M.S., Satti, M., El-Hassan, A.M., Ghalib, H.W., El-Safi, S. & El Hag, I.A. An outbreak of acute kala-azar in a nomadic tribe in western Sudan: features of the disease in a previously non-immune population. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg, 88, 431-432, 1994.
    130 Ibrahim, M.E., Hag-Ali, M., El-Hassan, A.M., Theander, T.G., & Kharazmi, A. Leishmania resistant to sodium stibogluconate: drug-associated macrophage-dependent killing. Parasitol. Res., 80, 569-574, 1994b.
    131 Gaafar, A., El Kadaro, A.Y., Theander, T.G., Permin, H., Ismail, A., Kharazmi, A. & El-Hassan, A.M. the pathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. major in the Sudan. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 52, 438-442, 1995a.
    132 Gaafar, A., Kharazmi, A., Ismail, A., Kemp, M., Hey, A., Christensen, C.B.V., Dafalla, M., El Kadaro, A.Y., El-Hassan, A.M., & Theander, T.G. Dichotomy of the T-cell response to antigens in patients suffering from cutaneous leishmaniasis: absence or scarcity of Th1 activity is associated with severe infections. Clin. Exp. Immunol., 100, 239-235, 1995b.
    133 Ahmed, A.I., Gadir, A.F.A., Hashim, F.A., El Kadaro, A.Y., Zijlstra, E.E. & El Hassan, A.M. Clinical features and pathology of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) in the Sudan. Sud. Med. J., 33, 7-12, 1995.
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    134 El Hassan, A.M., Zijlstra, E.E., Ismail, A. & Ghalib, H.W. Recent observations on the epidemiology of kala-azar in the Eastern and Central states of the Sudan. Trop. Geogr. Med., 47, 151-156, 1995a.
    135 El Hassan, A.M., Meredith, S.E.O., Yagi, H.I., Khalil, E.A.G., Ghalib, H.W., Abbas, K., Zijlstra, E.E., Kroon, C.C.M., Schoone, G.J. & Ismael, A. Sudanese mucosal leishmaniasis: epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, immune responses and treatment. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 89, 647-652, 1995b.
    136 El Hassan, A.M., Zijlstra, E.E., Khalil, E.A.G., Ghalib, H.W. & Ismail, A. The spectrum of Leishmania donovani infection in Salala village, Gedaref State. A longitudinal study. Sud. Med. J., 33, 63-66, 1995.
    137 Hashim, F.A., Khalil, E.A.G., Ismail, A. & El Hassan, A.M. Apparently successful treatment of two cases of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis with liposomal amphotericin B. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 89, 440, 1995.
    138 Zijlstra, E.E., El Hassan, A.M. & Ismael, A. Endemic kala-azar in eastern Sudan: post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 52, 299-305, 1995.
    139 Hashim, F.A., Ahmed, A.E., El Hassan, A.M., Murtada, H., El Mubarak, H.Y., El Neim, I. & Ali, M.S. Neurologic changes in visceral leishmaniasis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 52,149-154, 1995.
    140 Ibrahim, M.E., Evans, D.A., Theander, T.G., El Hassan, A.M. & Kharazmi, A. Diversity among Leishmania isolates from the Sudan: isoenzyme homogeneity of L. donovani versus heterogeneity of L. major. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 89, 366-369, 1995.
    141 Ghalib, H.W., Whittle, J.A., Kubin, M., Hashim, F.A., El-Hassan, A.M., Grabstein, K.H., Trinchieri, G. & Reed, S.G. Il-12 enhances Th1 - type response in human Leishmania donovani infections. J. of Immunol. 154, 4623-4629, 1995.
    142 El Hassan, A.M., Gaafar, A. & Theander, T.G. Antigen presenting cells in human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major. Clin. Exp. Immunol., 99(3), 445-53, 1995.
    143 El Hassan, A.M., El toum, I.A., Batoul, M.A., El asha. The marrara syndrome: isolation of Linguatula serrata from a patient and viscera of goats. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 85, 309, 1995.
    144 Fahal, A.H., El Hag, I.A., El-Hassan. A.M. & Hashim, F.A. Leishmanial cholecystitis and colitis in a patient with visceral leishmaniasis. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 89, 284, 1995.
    145 El Hassan, A.M., Hashim, F.A., Khalil, E.A.G., Abd Elgadir, A. & Kadaru, A. Neurological manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). A review and presentation of new findings. Lab. Medica Int., 13, 8-11, 1996.
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    146 Khalil, E. A. G., Zijlstra E. E., El-Hassan, A. M., & Davidson, R. N. Failure of a combination of tow antifungal drugs, terbanifine and itraconazole, in Sudanese post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis . Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 90, 187-188, 1996.
    147 Fahal, A.H., Yagi, H.I. & El Hassan, A.M. Mycetoma induced palatal deficiency and pharyngeal plexus dysfunction. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 90, 676, 1996.
    148 Fahal, A.H., Sheikh, H.E. & El Hassan, A.M. Pathological fracture in mycetoma. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 90, 675, 1996.
    149 Gafaar, A., Ismail, A., El Kadaro, A.Y., Hashim, E., Khalil, E.A., El Hassan, A.M. Necrotizing and suppurative lymphadenitis in Leishmania major infections. Trop. Med. Int Health, 1(2), 243-50, Apr 1996.
    150 El Hassan, A.M., El Kadaru, A.Y., Khalil, E.A.G. & El Hassan, M.M. The pathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Sudan: a comparison with that in other geographical areas. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 90 (5), 485, 1996.
    151 Yagi, H., El Bahari, S., Mohamed, H.A., Sid Ahmed, E., Mustafa, B., Mahmoud, M., Saad, M.B., Sulaiman, S.M. & El Hassan, A.M. The Marrara syndrome: a hypersensitivity reaction of the upper respiratory tract and buccopharyngeal mucosa to nymphs of Linguata serrata. Acta Tropica, 62, 127, 1996.
    152 Fahal, A.H., Sharfi, A.R., Sheik, H.E., El-Hassan, A.M. & Mahgoub, E.S. Internal fistula formation: an unusual complication of mycetoma. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 90(5), 550-2, 1996.
    153 Anderson, K., Gaafar, A., El-Hassan A. M., Ismail, A., Dafalla, M., Theander, T.G. & Kharazmi, A. Evaluation of the polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major: a comparison with direct microscopy of smears and sections from lesions. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 90(2), 133-5, 1996.
    154 Jensen, A.T.R., Gaafar, A., Ismail, A., Christensen, C.B.V., Kemp, M., El-Hassan, A.M., Kharazmi, A. & Theander, T.G. Serodiagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis: assessment of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a peptide sequence from gene B protein. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 55, 490-495, 1996.
    155 Osman, O.F., Oskam, L., Zijlstra, E.E., Kroon, N.C.M., Schoone, G.J., Khalil, E.A.G., El-Hassan, A.M. & Kager, P.A. Evaluation of the polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemother. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35(10), 2454-7, 1997a.
    156 Osman, O.F., Kager, P.A., Zijlstra, E.E., El Hassan, A.M. & Oskam, L. Use of PCR on lymph-node samples as test of cure in visceral leishmaniasis. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 91(7), 845-850, 1997b.
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    157 El Hassan, A.M. & Lamyaa, A. El Hassan. Recent advances in visceral leishmaniasis. Alpa Adna Microbiology J. 6(1-2), 23-33, 1997.
    158 Ibrahim, M.E., Sulaiman, A., Hashim, F.A., Khalil, E.A.G., Evans, D., Kharazmi, A. & El Hassan, A.M. Oronasal leishmaniasis caused by a parasite with an unusual isoenzyme profile.Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 56(1), 96, 1997.
    159 Andresen, K., Gasim, S., El Hassan, A.M., Khalil, E.A.G., Barker, D.C., Theander, T., G. & Kharazmi, A. Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis by the polymerase chain reaction using blood, bone marrow, & lymph node samples from patients from the Sudan. Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2, 440-444, 1997.
    160 Osman, O.F., Oskam, L., Kroon, N.C., Schoone G.J., Khalil, E.A.G., El Hassan A.M., Zijlstra, E.E. & Kager P.A. Use of PCR for diagnosis of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis Diagn. Lab Immunol., 36, 1621-4, 1998.
    161 Zijlstra, E.E., Osman, O.F., Hofland, H.W.C., Oskam, L., Ghalib, H.W., El Hassan, A.M., Kager, P.A. & Meredith, S.E.O. The direct agglutination test for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis under field conditions in Sudan: comparison of aqueous and freeze-dried antigens. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 91(6):671-673, 1997.
    162 Ismail, A., Kharazmi, A., Permin, H. & El Hassan, A.M. Detection and characterization of Leishmania in tissues of patients with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis using a specific monoclonal antibody. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 91 (3), 283, 1997.
    163 Fahal, A.H., El-Hag, I.A., Gadir, A.F., El-Lider, A.R., El-Hassan, A.M., Baraka, O.Z. & Mahgoub, E.S. Blood supply and vasculature of mycetoma. J. Med. Vet. Mycol., 35(2), 101-6, 1997.
    164 El Hassan, A.M., El Hassan, L.A. Recent Advances in Visceral Leishmaniasis. Alpe Adria Microbiology Journal. Review Article, 6 (1-2), 23-33, 1997.
    165 Osman, O.F., Oskam, L., Zijlstra, E.E., El-Hassan, A.M., El-Naiem, D.A. & Kager, P.A. PCR for the prognosis of success of visceral leishmaniasis treatment. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 92, 397-400, 1998.
    166 Gasim, S., El Hassan, A.M., Khalil, E.A.G., Ismael, A., Kadaru, A.M.Y., Kharazmi, A. & Theander, T.G. High levels of plasma IL-10 and expression of IL-10 by keratinocytes during visceral leishmaniasis predict subsequent development of post -kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Clin. Exp. Immunol., 111, 64-69, 1998.
    167 Fahal, A.H., El Hassan, A.M., Abdalla, A.O. & Sheik, H.E. Cystic mycetoma: an unusual clinical presentation of madurella mycetomatis infection. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 92, 66-67, 1998.
    168 Yagi HI, Fahal AH, Gadir AEA, El Hassan AM. Mycetoma of the mastoid bone.
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    Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 92, 68, 1998.
    169 El Hassan, A.M., Khalil, E.A.G., El Sheikh, E.A., Zijlstra, E.E., Osman, A. & Ibrahim, M.E. Post kala-azar ocular leishmaniasis. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 92,177-179, 1998.
    170 Khalil, E.A.G., El-Hassan, A.M., Zijlstra, E.E., Hashim, F.A., Ibrahim, M.E., Ghalib, H.W. & Ali, M.S. The treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with Sodium Stibogluconate in the Sudan: management of those who do not respond. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 92(2),151-158, 1998a.
    171 Khalil, E.A.G., Hashim, F.A., Ghalib, H.W., Zijlstra, E.E., El Hag, I.A., Satti, M., Mustafa, M.D., Kordofani, A., El-Safi, S., Hag Ali, M., Siddig Ali M. & El Hassan, A.M. Comparative study of liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) and sodium stibogluconate in the treatment of kala-azar in the Sudan. East African Med. J., 75(Cool, 37-45, 1998b.
    172 Saeed, A.M., Khalil, E.A.G., Elhassan, A.M.A., Hashim, F.A., El Hassan, A.M., Fandrey, J. & Jelkmann, W. Serum erythropoietin concentration in anaemia of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) before and during antimonial therapy. Br. J. Haematol., 100(4), 720-724, 1998.
    173 Staalso, T., Khalil, E.A.G., El Hassan, I.M., Zijlstra, E.E., El Hassan, A.M., Giha, H.A., Theander, T.G. & Jakobsen, P.H. Antibody reactrity to conserved linear epitopes of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). Immunology letters, 60,121-126, 1998.
    174 Zijlstra, E.E., Daifalla, N.S., Kager, P.A., Khalil, E.A.G., Elhassan, A.M., Reed, S.G. & Ghalib HW. rK39 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of L.donovani infection. Clin. Diag. Lab. Immunol., 5, 717-720, 1998.
    175 Oskam, L., Pratlong, F., Zijlstra, E.E., Kroon, C.C.M., Dedet, J.P., Kager, P.A., Schonian, G., Ghalib, H.W., El-Hassan, A.M. & Meredith, S.E.O. Biochemical and molecular characterization of Leishmania parasites isolated from an endemic focus in eastern Sudan. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 92,120-22, 1998.
    176 Jensen AT, Gasim S, Ismail A, Gaafar A, Kurtzhals JA, Kemp M, EL Hassan A M, kharazmy A, Theancer TG. Humoral and cellular immune responses to synthetic peptides of the leishmania donovani kinetoplastid membrane protein 11.Scand J Immunol1998;48:103=9
    177 Fahal, A.H., El Hassan, A.M., Abdalla, A.O. & Sheikh, H.E. Cystic mycetoma : an unusual clinical presentation of Madurella mycetomatis infection. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 92, 66-67, 1998.
    178 Khalil, E.A.G., Elhassan, L., Ismail A., Zijlstra, E.E., El-Hassan, A.M. Leprosy in an endemic focus in the Sudan. East African Med. J., 76(11), 35-38, 1999.
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    179 Kharazmi, A., Kemp, K., Ismail, A., Gasim, S., Gaafar, A., Kurtzhals, J.A., EL Hassan, A.M., Theander, T.G., Kemp, M. T-cell responses in human leishmaniasis. Immunol. Lett., 65(1-2), 105-8, 1999.
    180 Gaafar, A., Veress, B., Permin, H., Kharazmi, A., Theander, T.G. & El-Hassan, A.M. Characterization of the local and systemic immune responses in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major. Clin. Immunol., 91(3), 313-20, 1999.
    181 Jensen, A.T.R., Gasim. S., Moller, T., Ismail, A., Gaafar, A., Kemp, M., El Hassan, A.M., Kharazmi, A., Alce, T.M., Smith, D.F. & Theander, T.G. Serodiagnosis of Leishmania donovani infections: assessment of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using recombinant L.donovani gene B protein (GBP) and a peptide sequence of L.donovani GBP. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 93(2), 157-160, 1999.
    182 Ibrahim, M.E., Lambson, B., Yousif, A.O., Deifalla, N.S., Alnaiem, D.A., Ismail, A., Yousif, H., Ghalib, H.W., Khalil, E.A., Kadaro, A., Barker, D.C. & El Hassan, A.M. Kala-azar in a high transmission focus: an ethnic and geographic dimension. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 61(6), 941-4, 1999.
    183 Ahmed, O.A., Mukhtar, M.M., Kools-Sijmons, M., Fahal, H.A., Hoog., S., van den Ende, B.G., Zijlstra, E.E., Verburgh, H., Abugroun, E.S., El Hassan, A.M. & van Belkum, A. Development of species-specific PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis procedure for identification of Madurella mycetomatis. 37(10), 3175-8, 1999.
    184 Ismail A, EL Hassan AM, Kemp K, Gasim S, et al Immunopathology of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL): T cell phenotypes and cytokine profile. J Pathol1999;189;615-22.
    185 Khalil, E.A.G., Elsiddig, K.E., Elsafi, M.E.M.O., El-Hag, Elkhidir, I.M., Suleiman, G., Hussein, A.M., Ibrahim, M.E. & Elhassan A.M. Supra-sternal tuberculous abscess: a report of three cases Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 94, 1-3, 2000.
    186 Gasim, S., El Hassan, A. M., Kharazmi, A., Khalil, E. A., Ismail, A., Theander, T.G. The development of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is associated with acquisition of Leishmania reactivity by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Clin Exp Immunol., 119(3):523-9, 2000.
    187 Elmubarak, S., Van De Bilt, M.W., Mustafa, O.A., Vos, H.W., Mukhtar, M.M., Groen, J., El Hassan, A.M., Niesters, H.G., Ibrahim, S.A., Zijlstra, E.E., Wild, T.F., Osterhaus, A.D. & De Swart, R. L. Serological and virological characterization of clinically diagnosed case measles in suburban Khartoum. J. Clin. Microbiol., 38(3), 987-91, 2000.
    188 Zijlstra, E.E., Khalil, E.A.G., Kager, P.A. & El-Hassan, A.M. Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in the Sudan: clinical presentation and differential diagnosis. Brit. J. Dermatol., 143, 136-143, 2000.
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    189 Khalil, E.A.G., El Hassan, A.M., Zijlstra, E.E., Mukhtar, M.M., Ghalib, H.W., Musa, B., Ibrahim, M.E., Kamil, A.A., Elsheikh, M., Babiker, A., Modabber, F.M. Autoclaved Leishmania major vaccine for prevention of visceral leishmaniasis: a randomized, double blind, BCG-controlled trial in Sudan. Lancet, 4, 356(9241): 1565-9, 2000.
    190 El-Hassan, A.M. & Zijlstra, E.E. Leishmaniasis in Sudan. 1. Cutaneous leishmaniasis. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 95, supplement 1, S1/1-S1/17, 2001.
    191 El-Hassan, A.M. & Zijlstra, E.E. Leishmaniasis in Sudan. 2. Mucosal leishmaniasis. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 95, supplement 1, S1/19-S1/26, 2001.
    192 Zijlstra, E.E., El-Hassan, A.M. Leishmaniasis in Sudan. 3. Visceral leishmaniasis. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 95, supplement 1, S1/27-S1/58, 2001.
    193 Zijlstra, E.E., El-Hassan, A.M. Leishmaniasis in Sudan. 4. Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 95, supplement 1, S1/59-S1/76, 2001.
    194 Zijlstra, E.E., Nur, Y., Desjeux, P., Khalil, E.A.G., El-Hassan, A.M. & Groen, J. Diagnosing visceral leishmaniasis with the recombinant K39 strip test; experience from Sudan. Trop. Med. Int. Health, 6, 108-113, 2001.
    195 De Swart, R.L., El Mubarak, H.S., Vos, H.W., Mustafa, O.M., Abdallah, A., Groen, J., Mukhtar, M.M., Zijlstra, E.E., El Hassan, A.M., Wild, T.F., Ibrahim, S.A. & Osterhaus, A.D. Prevention of measles in Sudan: a prospective study on vaccination, diagnosis and epidemiology. Vaccine, 19, 2254-2257, 2001.
    196 Satti, I.N., Osman, H.Y., Daifalla, N.S., Younis, S.A., Khalil, E.A.G., Zijlstra, E.E., El Hassan, A.M. & Ghalib, H.W. Immunogenicity and safety of autoclaved Leishmania major plus BCG vaccine in healthy Sudanese volunteers. Vaccine, 28, 19(15-16), 2100-6, 2001.
    197 EL Hassan, A.M., Fahal, A.H., Ahmed, A.O., Ismail A., Veress, B. The immunopathology of actinomycetoma lesions Caused by Streptomyces somaliensis. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.,98, 89-92, 2001.
    198 EL Hassan, A M, Khalil EA. Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: does it play a role in transmission of Leishmania donovani in the Sudan? Trp Med int Health 2001; 6(9) 743-4.
    199 Kordofani YM, Nour YT, EL Hassan AM, Shalayel MH. Post Kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in Sudan. East Mediterr Health J. 2001;7:1061-4.
    200 Eidsmo L, Woldey D, Berhe N, Sabri F, Satti I, EL Hassan A M et al. Alteration of Fas and fas ligand expression during human visceral leishmaniasis. Clin Exp Immunol 2002;130:307-13.
    201 EL Mubarak HS, van de Bildt MW, Mustafa OA, Trop Med int Health 2002os HW,
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    Mukhtar MM, Ibrahim SA, Andeweg AC, EL hassan A M et al Genetic characterization of wild-type measles viruses circulating in suburban Khartoum 1997-2000. j Gent viol 2002;83: 1437-43.
    202 Jensen AT, Ismail A, Gaafar A, EL Hassan AM, Theander TG. Humoral and cellular immune responses to glucose related protein 78 - - a novel leishmania antigen. Trop Med int Health 2002 ;7:471-6.
    203 Ibrahim SA, Mustafa OM, Mukhtar MM, Saleh EA, EL Mubarak HS, Abdullah A, EL Hassan AM, Osterhouse AD. Et al. Measles in suburban Khartoum: an epidemiological and clinical study. Trop Med int Health 2002; 7:442-9.
    204 EL Hassan LA, Khalil EA, EL Hassan AM. Sociocultural aspects of leprosy among among the Masalit and Hawsa tribes in the Sudan. Lepr Rev. 2002;73:20-8.
    205 Khalil EA, Zijlstra EE, Kager PA. EL Hassan AM. Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of leishmania donovani infection in two villages in in an endemic area in eastern Sudan. Trop Med int Health 2002;7: 35-44.
    206 Musa AM, Khalil EA, Raheem MA, Zijlstra, EE, Ibrahim MEEL Hassan IM, Mukhtar MM, EL Hassan AM. The natural history of Sudanese post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: clinical, immunological and prognostic features. Ann Trop med parasitol. 2002;96:765-72.
    207 Masri, M.A., Abdel Seed, N.M., Fahal, A.H., Romano, M., Baralle, F., El Hassan, A.M. & Ibrahim, M.E. Minor role for BRCA2 (exon 11) and p53 (exon 5-9) among Sudanese breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment Breast Cancer Research and Treatment2001;2157-01:01.
    208 Ibrahim SA, Abdulla HA, EL hassan AM. Case report: Congenital salivary gland analage tumour presenting with neonatal respiratory distress. Pediatr Path Molec Med 2003;22:209-11.
    209 Bereir, R.E.H., Mohamed, H.S., Seielstad, M., El Hassan, A.M., Khalil, E.A.G., Peacock, C.S., Blackwell, J.M. and Ibrahim, M.E. (2003) Allele frequency and genotype distribution of polymorphisms within disease-related genes is influenced by ethnic population sub-structuring in Sudan. Genetica, 119, 57-63
    210 Elsiddig KE, Khalil EA, Elhag IA, EL safi ME, Suleiman GM, Elkhider IM, Hussein AM, EL Hassan AM. Granulomatous mammary disease: ten years’ experience with fine needle aspiration cytology. Inter J tuberc Lung Dis2003;7:365-9.
    211 Zijlstra EE, Musa AM, Khalil EA, el Hassan I, EL Hassan AM. Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Lancet Infect Dis2003;3:87-98.
    212 Kamil AA, Khalil EA, Musa AM, Moddaber F, Mukhtar MM, Ibrahim ME, Zijlstra
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    EE, Scks D. Smith PG, Zicker F, EL hassan AM. Alum-precipated autoclaved Leishmania major plus bacille Calmette-Guerrin, a candidate vaccine for visceral leishmaniasis: safty, skin delayed hypersensitivity response and dose finding in healthy volunteers. Trans R Society Trop Med Hyg2003;97:365-8.
    213 Mohamed HS, Ibrahim ME, Miller EN, Peacock CS, Khalil EA, Cordell HJ, Howson JM, EL Hassan A M et al genetic susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis in the Sudan: Linkage and association with IL-4 and IFNR1. Genes Immun 2003;4:351-5.
    214 Mohamed HS, Ibrahim ME, Miller EN, White JK, Cordell HJ, Howson JM, Peacock CS, Khalil EA, EL Hassan AM, Blackwell JM. SLC11A1 (formally NRAMP) and susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis in the Sudan. Eur J Hum Genet2004;12:66-74.
    215 Elamin EM, Guerbourg S, Musa AM, Guizani I, Khalil EA, Mukhtar MM, EL Kadaro AM, Mohamed HS, Ibrahim ME, Abdel Hamid MM, EL Azhari M, EL Hassan AM. Uncommon clinical presentations of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sudan. Trans R Soc Trop med Hyg2005;99:563-9.
    216 Musa AM, Khalil EAG, Ismail A, EL Hassan IM, Fasharki H, Khameesipore A, Modabber F, Zijlstra EE, EL Hassan AM. Safety immunogenecity, and possible efficacy of immunochemotherapy of persistent post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Sudan J Dermatol;3:63-72.
    217 Musa AM, Khalil EA, Mahgoub FA, Hamid S, EL Kadaro AM, EL Hassan A M. Efficacy of liposomal amphoterecin B (AmBisome) in the treatment of persistent post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. (PKDL). Ann Trp Med parasitol2005;99:563-9.
    218 Own AI, Salam IM, Mohmoud MA, Elamin EM, EL Hassan AM. Lipoblastoma in a four-year old African child. Fet Pediatr Pathol.2005;24:133-9.
    219 EL Hassan AM, Ahmed MA, Elamin EM, EL Hassan Lamyaa A M. Cutaneous
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    leishmaniasis in Sudan: an update. Sudan J Dermatol2005;3:53-62.
    220 Elamin EM, Mukhtar MM, Bakhiet Sahar, Musa AM, EL Hassan Lamya AM, Kadaru AMY, EL Hassan AM. Case report: An unusal case of mucosal leishmaniasis with cutaneous dissemination in Sudan and its epidemiological significance. Sudan J Dermatol;3:88-91.
    221 Ismail A, Khalil EA, Musa AM, EL Hassan I, Ibrahim ME, Theander TG, EL Hassan AM. The pathogenesis of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: Does ultraviolet light (UVB) radiation play a role? Med hypotheses2006;66:993-9.
    222 Hatim M Y Mudawi, Elwaleed A M Elhassan, Omer Z Baraka, Ahmed M El Hassan Schistosomal colitis without granuloma formation in a kidney transplant recipient. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 (12):700-4
    223 Abdelrahim O Mohammed, Bekhieta Attalla, Fathya M K Bashir, Fatima E Ahmed, Ahmed M El Hassan, Gafar Ibnauf, Weiying Jiang, Luigi L Cavalli-Sforza, Zein Al Abdin Karrar, Muntaser E Ibrahim Community Genet. 2006 ;9:113- 20S
    224 EL Hassan, A M, Fahal AH, Veress B. Cell phenotypes, immunoglobulins and compleme
    in lesions caused by Madurella mycetomatis Sudanese journal of Dermatology 2006;4:2-5
    225 Salih MA, Ibrahim ME, Blackwell JM, Miller Nancy, Khalil EAG, ElHassan AM, Musa AM and Moh
    226 Miller NE, Fadal M, Mohamed HS, ElzeinA, Jamieson SE, Cordell HJ., Peacock CS., Fakiola M, RaSudan. PLoS Genetics, 3:5
    227 Farouk S.,Ibrahim ME,Salih MA, Blackwell JM, Miller Nancy, Khalil EAG, ElHassan AM, Musa AM
    228 Allam MM, Alkadarou TA, Ahmed BG, Elkhair IS, Alansary EH, Ibrahim ME, Elhassan AM, El
    Hyper-reactive Malarial Splenomegaly (HMS) in malaria endemic area in Eastern Sudan.
    Acta Trop. 2008 Feb;105(2):196-9.
    22
    229 Crohn's disease masquerading carcinoma of the esophagus.
    Saudi Med J. 2007 Aug;28(Cool:1287-8.
    230 Salih MA, Ibrahim ME, Blackwell JM, Miller EN, Khalil EA, ElHassan AM, Musa AM, Mohamed
    IFNG and IFNGR1 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in Sudan.
    Genes Immun. 2007 Jan;8(1):75-8.
    BOOKS:
    1) El Hassan, A.M. & Modabber, F. Pathology of visceral leishmaniasis in man and experimental animals in: visceral leishmaniasis. H.G. Gilles (editor) 1999.
    2) EL Hassan, A.M. The impact of endemic diseases on health and development, Khartoum University Press, 1995.
    3) A M EL Hassan, M E Ibrahim. Cultural health assessment. Pp 724-731 Mosby, St. Louis, USA, C E Erickson and E M Cessler (editors)[/center]
    [/justify] 2003.[/right]
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